Title: Section 1021 • Size: 19127
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1021.1 Scope. The provisions of this section apply to reviewing stands, grandstands, bleachers, and folding and telescoping seating.
1021.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this section certain terms are defined as follows:
BLEACHERS are tiered or stepped seating facilities without backrests in which an area of 3 square feet (0.28 ) or less is assigned per person for computing the occupant load.
DISPERSAL AREA, SAFE, is an area which will accommodate a number of persons equal to the total capacity of the stand and building which it serves such that a person within the area will not be closer than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the stand or building. Dispersal area capacity shall be determined by allowing 3 square feet (0.28 ) of net clear area per person.
FOLDING AND TELESCOPING SEATING is a structure that is used for tiered seating of persons, and which overall shape and size may be reduced without being dismantled, for purposes of moving or storing.
FOOTBOARDS are that part of a raised seating facility other than an aisle or cross aisle upon which the occupant walks to reach a seat.
GRANDSTANDS are tiered or stepped seating facilities wherein an area of more than 3 square feet (0.28 ) is provided for each person.
OPEN-AIR GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS are seating facilities which are located so that the side toward which the audience faces is unroofed and without an enclosing wall.
PERMANENT STANDS are those seating facilities which remain at a location for more than90 days.
REVIEWING STANDS are elevated platforms accommodating not more than 50 persons. Seating facilities, if provided, are normally in the nature of loose chairs. Reviewing stands accommodating more than 50 persons shall be regulated as grandstands.
TEMPORARY SEATING FACILITIES are those which are intended for use at a location for not more than 90 days.
1021.3 Height of Reviewing Stands, Grandstands, Bleachers, and Folding and Telescoping Seating. See Section 303.2.
1021.4 Design Requirements. See Chapter 16 and Section 1806.9.
1021.5 General Requirements.
1021.5.1 Row spacing. There shall be a clear space of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) measured horizontally between the back or backrest of each seat and the front of the seat immediately behind it. The minimum spacing of rows of seats measured from back to back shall be:
1. Twenty-two inches (559 mm) for seats without backrests.
2. Thirty inches (762 mm) for seats with backrests.
3. Thirty-three inches (838 mm) for chair seating.
1021.5.2 Rise between rows. The maximum rise from one row of seats to the next shall not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) unless the seat spacing from back to back measured horizontally is 40 inches (1016 mm) or more.
EXCEPTION: When automatic- or self-rising seats are installed, the rise between rows may be increased to 24 inches (610 mm) with the horizontal spacing back to back of 33 inches (838 mm).
1021.5.3 Seating capacity determination. When bench-type seating is used, the number of seats shall be based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of length of the bench.
1021.5.4.1 Aisles required. Aisles shall be provided in all seating facilities except that aisles may be omitted when all of the following conditions exist:
1. Seats are without backrests.
2. The rise from row to row does not exceed 12 inches (305 mm) per row.
3. The number of rows does not exceed 11 in height.
4. The top seating board is not over 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade.
5. The first seating board is not more than 20 inches (508 mm) above grade.
1021.5.4.2 Obstructions. No obstruction shall be placed in the required width of any aisle or exitway.
1021.5.4.3 Width. Aisles serving seats on both sides shall have a minimum width of 42 inches (1067 mm). When serving seats on only one side, the aisle shall have a minimum width of 36 inches (914 mm). Except for temporary seating facilities, the required width for aisles shall equal the greater of the two minimum required widths determined in accordance with Section 1014.3 and this subsection.
1021.5.5 Cross aisles and vomitories. Cross aisles and vomitories shall not be less than 54 inches (1372 mm) in clear width and shall extend to an exit, enclosed stairway or exterior perimeter ramp. Except for temporary seating facilities, the required width for cross aisles shall equal the greatest of three minimum required widths determined in accordance with Section 1014 and this section.
1021.5.6 Stairways and ramps. Except as otherwise provided in this item, grandstands, bleachers, and folding and telescoping seating shall comply with other applicable sections of this chapter. Stairways and ramps shall have a maximum rise and run as provided in Section 1006.3 and Section 1007, except those within the seating facility which serve as aisles at right angles to the rows of seats where the rise shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). When an aisle terminates at an elevation more than 8 inches (203 mm) above grade or floor below, the aisle shall be provided with a stairway or ramp which width is not less than the width of the aisle.
Stairways and ramps shall have handrails as provided in Sections 1006 and 1007, except stairways within the seating facility which serve as aisles at right angles where handrails shall be provided at one side or along the center line. A minimum clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between seats shall be provided for aisle stairways having center-aisle handrails. When there is seating on both sides of the aisle, handrails shall be discontinuous with openings at intervals not exceeding five rows for access to seating. The opening shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and not greater than 36 inches (914 mm) measured horizontally, and the handrail shall have rounded terminations. When handrails are provided in the middle of the aisle stairs, there shall be an additional intermediate rail located approximately 12 inches (305 mm) below the top of the handrail.
EXCEPTION: Temporary seating facility stairways within the seating area which serve as aisles at right angles need not be provided with handrails.
1021.5.7 Guardrails. Perimeter guardrails or enclosing walls or fencing shall be provided for all portions of elevated seating facilities which are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade or floor. Construction of guardrails shall comply with Section 509 and Table 16-B. Guardrails shall be 42 inches (1067 mm) above the rear of a seat board or 42 inches (1067 mm) above the rear of the steps in an aisle when the guardrail is parallel and adjacent to the aisle.
EXCEPTION: Guardrails at the front of the front row of seats, which are not located at the end of an aisle and where there is no cross aisle, may have a height of 26 inches (660 mm) and need not meet the 4-inch-maximum (102 mm) spacing specified in Section 509; however, a midrail shall be installed.
The open vertical space between footboards and seats shall not exceed 9 inches (229 mm) when footboards are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade.
1021.5.8 Toeboards. A 4-inch-high (102 mm) vertical barrier shall be installed along the edge of walking platforms whenever guardrails are required.
EXCEPTION: Toeboards shall not be required at the ends of footboards.
1021.5.9 Footboards. Footboards shall be provided for all rows of seats above the third row or beginning at such a point where the seat is more than 2 feet (610 mm) above the grade or floor below. When the same platform is used for both seating and footrests, footrests are not required, provided each level or platform is not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide. When aisles are required by Section 1021.5.4, footboards not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in width shall be installed between each row of seats.
1021.6 Grandstands, Bleachers, and Folding and Telescoping Seating within Buildings. Except as otherwise provided in Section 1021.6 and 1021.7, grandstands, bleachers, and folding and telescoping seating within a building shall comply with the other applicable sections of this chapter.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. When seats are without backrests, there may be nine seats between any seat and an aisle.
2. When seats are without backrests, dead ends in vertical aisles shall not exceed a depth of 16 rows.
1021.7 Open-air Grandstands, Bleachers, and Folding and Telescoping Seating.
1021.7.1 General. Except as otherwise provided in Sections 1021.7.2 through 1021.7.10, open-air grandstands, bleachers, and folding and telescoping seating shall comply with the other applicable sections of this chapter.
1021.7.2 Number of seats between aisles. The number of seats between any seat and an aisle shall not be greater than 20 when the seats are without backrests and nine if the seats have backrests.
1021.7.3 Dead ends. Dead ends in vertical aisles shall not exceed a depth of 16 rows for permanent grandstands and 26 rows for temporary grandstands.
1021.7.4 Distance to exit. The line of travel from any seat to a safe dispersal area exit ramp, enclosed stairway or vomitory shall not be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm). When the seats have no backrests, the distance may be a direct line measurement.
1021.7.5 Safe dispersal area. Each safe dispersal area shall have a minimum of two exits. If more than 6,000 persons are to be accommodated within a dispersal area, there shall be a minimum of three exits and for more than 9,000 persons there shall be at least four exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe dispersal area shall be determined on the basis of not less than one exit unit of 22 inches (559 mm) for each 500 persons to be accommodated, and no exit shall be less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in width.
1021.7.6 Two exits required. Two exits shall be provided from every facility which accommodates more than 300 persons.
1021.7.7 Three exits required. Three exits shall be required when a facility or section thereof accommodates more than 1,000 persons.
1021.7.8 Four exits required. Four exits shall be required when a facility or section thereof accommodates more than 3,000 persons.
1021.7.9 Determination of exit width. The total width of exits in feet (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served divided by 150 (0.492) when exiting by stairs and divided by 200 (0.656) when exiting by ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories.
1021.7.10 Minimum exit width.
No exit shall be less than 42 inches (1067
mm) in width.
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