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Title: Section 1403  •  Size: 22579

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SECTION 1403 - VENEER

1403.1 Scope.

1403.1.1 General. All veneer and its application shall conform to the requirements of this code. Wainscots not exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured above the adjacent ground elevation for exterior veneer or the finish floor elevation for interior veneer may be exempted from the provisions of this chapter if approved by the building official.

1403.1.2 Limitations. Exterior veneer shall not be attached to wood-frame construction at a point more than 30 feet (9144 mm) in height above the noncombustible foundation, except the 30-foot (9144 mm) limit may be increased when special construction is designed to provide for differential movement and when approved by the building official.

1403.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter, certain terms are defined as follows:

BACKING as used in this chapter is the surface or assembly to which veneer is attached.

VENEER is nonstructural facing of brick, concrete, stone, tile, metal, plastic or other similar approved material attached to a backing for the purpose of ornamentation, protection or insulation.

Adhered Veneer is veneer secured and supported through adhesion to an approved bonding material applied over an approved backing.

Anchored Veneer is veneer secured to and supported by approved connectors attached to an approved backing.

Exterior Veneer is veneer applied to weather-exposed surfaces as defined in Section 224.

Interior Veneer is veneer applied to surfaces other than weather-exposed surfaces as defined in Section 224.

1403.3 Materials. Materials used in the application of veneer shall conform to the applicable requirements for such materials as set forth elsewhere in this code.

For masonry units and mortar, see Chapter 21.

For precast concrete units, see Chapter 19.

For portland cement plaster, see Chapter 25.

Anchors, supports and ties shall be noncombustible and corrosion resistant.

When the terms ``corrosion resistant'' or ``noncorrosive'' are used in this chapter they shall mean having a corrosion resistance equal to or greater than a hot-dipped galvanized coating of 1.5 ounces of zinc per square foot (458 g/) of surface area. When an element is required to be corrosion resistant or noncorrosive, all of its parts, such as screws, nails, wire, dowels, bolts, nuts, washers, shims, anchors, ties and attachments, shall be corrosion resistant.

1403.4 Design.

1403.4.1 General. The design of all veneer shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 16 and this section.

Veneer shall support no load other than its own weight and the vertical dead load of veneer above.

Surfaces to which veneer is attached shall be designed to support the additional vertical and lateral loads imposed by the veneer.

Consideration shall be given for differential movement of supports, including that caused by temperature changes, shrinkage, creep and deflection.

1403.4.2 Adhered veneer. With the exception of ceramic tile, adhered veneer and its backing shall be designed to have a bond to the supporting element sufficient to withstand a shearing stress of 50 psi (345 kPa).

1403.4.3 Anchored veneer. Anchored veneer and its attachments shall be designed to resist a horizontal force equal to at least twice the weight of the veneer.

1403.5 Adhered Veneer.

1403.5.1 Permitted backing. Backing shall be continuous and may be of any material permitted by this code. It shall have surfaces prepared to secure and support the imposed loads of veneer.

Exterior veneer, including its backing, shall provide a weatherproof covering.

For additional backing requirements, see Section 1402.

1403.5.2 Area limitations. The height and length of veneered areas shall be unlimited except as required to control expansion and contraction and as limited by Section 1403.1.2.

1403.5.3 Unit size limitations. Veneer units shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm) in the greatest dimension or more than 720 square inches (0.46 ) in total area and shall weigh not more than 15 pounds per square foot (psf) (73.2 kg/) unless approved by the building official.

EXCEPTION: Veneer units weighing less than 3 psf (14.6 kg/) shall not be limited in dimension or area.

1403.5.4 Application. In lieu of the design required by Sections 1403.4.1 and 1403.4.2, adhered veneer may be applied by one of the following application methods:

1. A paste of neat portland cement shall be brushed on the backing and the back of the veneer unit. Type S mortar then shall be applied to the backing and the veneer unit. Sufficient mortar shall be used to create a slight excess to be forced out the edges of the units. The units shall be tapped into place so as to completely fill the space between the units and the backing. The resulting thickness of mortar in back of the units shall not be less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) or more than 11/4 inches (32 mm).

2. Units of tile, masonry, stone or terra cotta, not over 1 inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be restricted to 81 square inches (52 258 ) in area unless the back side of each unit is ground or box screeded to true up any deviations from plane. These units and glass mosaic units of tile not over2 inches by 2 inches by 3/8 inch (51 mm by 51 mm by 9.5 mm) in size may be adhered by means of portland cement. Backing may be of masonry, concrete or portland cement plaster on metal lath. Metal lath shall be fastened to the supports in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 25. Mortar as described in Table 14-A shall be applied to the backing as a setting bed. The setting bed shall be a minimum of 3/8 inch (10 mm) thick and a maximum of 3/4 inch (19 mm) thick. A paste of neat portland cement or one-half portland cement and one-half graded sand shall be applied to the back of the exterior veneer units and to the setting bed and the veneer pressed and tapped into place to provide complete coverage between the mortar bed and veneer unit. A cement mortar shall be used to point the veneer.

1403.5.5 Ceramic tile. Portland cement mortars for installing ceramic tile on walls, floors and ceilings shall be as set forth in Table 14-A.

1403.6 Anchored Veneer.

1403.6.1 Permitted backing. Backing may be of any material permitted by this code. Exterior veneer including its backing shall provide a weatherproof covering.

1403.6.2 Height and support limitations. Anchored veneers shall be supported on footings, foundations or other noncombustible support except as provided under Section 2316.

In Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4 the weight of all anchored veneers installed on structures more than 30 feet (9144 mm) in height above the noncombustible foundation or support shall be supported by noncombustible, corrosion-resistant structural framing. The structural framing shall have horizontal supports spaced not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) vertically above the initial 30-foot (9144 mm) height. The vertical spacing between horizontal supports may be increased when special design techniques, approved by the building official, are used in the construction.

Noncombustible, noncorrosive lintels and noncombustible supports shall be provided over all openings where the veneer unit is not self-spanning. The deflections of all structural lintels and horizontal supports required by this subsection shall not exceed 1/600 of the span under full load of the veneer.

1403.6.3 Area limitations. The area and length of anchored veneer walls shall be unlimited, except as required to control expansion and contraction and by Section 1403.1.2.

1403.6.4 Application.

1403.6.4.1 General. In lieu of the design required by Sections 1403.4.1 and 1403.4.3, anchored veneer may be applied in accordance with this section.

1403.6.4.2 Masonry and stone units [5 inches (127 mm) maximum in thickness]. Masonry and stone veneer not exceeding 5 inches (127 mm) in thickness may be anchored directly to structural masonry, concrete or studs in one of the following manners:

1. Wall ties shall be corrosion resistant, and if made of sheet metal, shall have a minimum thickness of 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) ( No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) by 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) or, if of wire, shall have a minimum diameter of 0.148 inch (3.76 mm) (No. 9 B.W. gage). Wall ties shall be spaced so as to support not more than 2 square feet (0.19 ) of wall area but shall not be more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center horizontally. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, wall ties shall have a lip or hook on the extended leg that will engage or enclose a horizontal joint reinforcement wire having a diameter of 0.148 inch (3.76 mm) (No. 9 B.W. gage) or equivalent. The joint reinforcement shall be continuous with butt splices between ties permitted.

When applied over stud construction, the studs shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on center and approved paper shall first be applied over the sheathing or wires between studs except as otherwise provided in Section 1402, and mortar shall be slushed into the 1-inch (25 mm) space between facing and paper.

As an alternate, an air space of at least 1 inch (25 mm) may be maintained between the backing and the veneer in which case spot bedding at all ties shall be of cement mortar.

2. Veneer may be applied with 1-inch-minimum (25 mm) grouted backing space which is reinforced by not less than 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) 0.065 inch (1.65 mm) (No. 16 B.W. gage) galvanized wire mesh placed over waterproof paper backing and anchored directly to stud construction.

The stud spacing shall not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) on center. The galvanized wire mesh shall be anchored to wood studs by galvanized steel wire furring nails at 4 inches (102 mm) on center or by barbed galvanized nails at 6 inches (152 mm) on center with a 11/8-inch-minimum (29 mm) penetration. The galvanized wire mesh may be attached to steel studs by equivalent wire ties. If this method is applied over solid sheathing the mesh must be furred for embedment in grout. The wire mesh must be attached at the top and bottom with not less than 8-penny (64 mm) common wire nails. The grout fill shall be placed to fill the space intimately around the mesh and veneer facing.

1403.6.4.3 Stone units [10 inches (254 mm) maximum in thickness]. Stone veneer units not exceeding 10 inches (254 mm) in thickness may be anchored directly to structural masonry, concrete or to studs:

1. With concrete or masonry backing. Anchor ties shall not be less than 0.109 inch (2.77 mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) galvanized wire, or approved equal, formed as an exposed eye and extending not less than 1/2 inch (3 mm) beyond the face of the backing. The legs of the loops shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in length bent at right angles and laid in the masonry mortar joint and spaced so that the eyes or loops are 12 inches (254 mm) maximum on center in both directions. There shall be provided not less than a 0.109 inch (2.77 mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) galvanized wire tie, or approved equal, threaded through the exposed loops for every 2 square feet (0.19 ) of stone veneer. This tie shall be a loop having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm) in length so bent that it will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint. The last 2 inches (51 mm) of each wire leg shall have a right angle bend. One inch (25 mm) of cement grout shall be placed between the backing and the stone veneer.

2. With stud backing. A 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) 0.065 inch (1.65 mm) (No. 16 B.W. gage) galvanized wire mesh with two layers of waterproof paper backing shall be applied directly to wood studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on center. On studs the mesh shall be attached with 2-inch-long (51 mm) galvanized steel wire furring nails at 4 inches (102 mm) on center providing a minimum 11/8-inch (29 mm) penetration into each stud and with 8-penny (64 mm) common nails at 8 inches (203 mm) on center into top and bottom plates. The galvanized wire mesh may be attached to steel studs with equivalent wire ties. There shall be not less than 0.109 inch (2.77 mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) galvanized wire, or approved equal, looped through the mesh for every 2 square feet (0.19 ) of stone veneer. This tie shall be a loop having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm) in length, so bent that it will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint.

The last 2 inches (51 mm) of each wire leg shall have a right angle bend. One-inch-minimum (25 mm) thickness of cement grout shall be placed between the backing and the stone veneer.

1403.6.4.4 Slab-type units [2 inches (51 mm) maximum in thickness]. For veneer units of marble, travertine, granite or other stone units of slab form, ties of corrosion-resistant dowels shall engage drilled holes located in the middle third of the edge of the units spaced a maximum of 24 inches (610 mm) apart around the periphery of each unit with not less than four ties per veneer unit. Units shall not exceed 20 square feet (1.9 ) in area.

If the dowels are not tight fitting, the holes may be drilled not more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) larger in diameter than the dowel with the hole countersunk to a diameter and depth equal to twice the diameter of the dowel in order to provide a tight-fitting key of cement mortar at the dowel locations when the mortar in the joint has set.

All veneer ties shall be corrosion-resistant metal capable of resisting in tension or compression a force equal to two times the weight of the attached veneer.

If made of sheet metal, veneer ties shall not be smaller in area than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) by 1 inch (25 mm) or, if made of wire, not smaller in diameter than 0.148 inch (3.76 mm) (No. 9 B.W. gage) wire.

1403.6.4.5 Terra cotta or ceramic units. Tied terra cotta or ceramic veneer units shall not be less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in thickness with projecting dovetail webs on the back surface spaced approximately 8 inches (203 mm) on centers. The facing shall be tied to the backing wall with noncorrosive metal anchors of not less than 0.165 inch (4.19 mm) (No. 8 B.W. gage) wire installed at the top of each piece in horizontal bed joints not less than 12 inches (305 mm) or more than 18 inches (457 mm) on centers; these anchors shall be secured to 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) galvanized pencil rods which pass through the vertical aligned loop anchors in the backing wall. The veneer ties shall have sufficient strength to support the full weight of the veneer in tension. The facing shall be set with not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) space from the backing wall and the space shall be filled solidly with portland cement grout and pea gravel. Immediately prior to setting, the backing wall and the facing shall be drenched with clean water and shall be distinctly damp when the grout is poured.

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