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Title: Section 1603  •  Size: 10152

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SECTION 1603 - DESIGN METHODS

1603.1 General. Buildings and other structures, and all portions thereof, shall be designed and constructed to sustain, within the limitations specified in this code, all dead loads and all other loads specified within this chapter, elsewhere in this code. Impact loads shall be considered in the design of any structure where impact loads occur.

EXCEPTION: Unless otherwise required by the building official, buildings or portions thereof which are constructed in accordance with the conventional framing requirements specified in Chapter 23 of this code shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.

1603.2 Standards. The standards listed below are recognized standards. (See Section 3503).

1. Wind design.

1.1 ASCE 7, Chapter 6, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

1.2 ANSI EIA/TIA 222-2E, Structural Standards for Steel Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures

1.3 ANSI/NAAMM FP1001, Guide Specifications for the Design Loads of Metal Flagpoles

1603.3 Rationality.

1603.3.1 General. Any system or method of construction to be used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a system which provides a complete load path capable of transferring all loads and forces from their point of origin to the load-resisting elements. The analysis shall include, but not be limited to, the provisions of Sections 1603.3.2 through 1603.5.

1603.3.2 Distribution of horizontal shear. The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements that are assumed not to be part of the lateral-force-resisting system may be incorporated into buildings, provided that their effect on the action of the system is considered and provided for in the design.

1603.3.3 Horizontal torsional moments. Provision shall be made for the increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigidity of the lateral force-resisting system. Forces shall not be decreased due to torsional effects. For accidental torsion requirements for seismic design, see Section 1628.6.

1603.3.4 Stability against overturning. Every building or structure shall be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by the lateral forces specified in this chapter. See Section 1619 for wind and Section 1628 for seismic.

1603.3.5 Anchorage. Anchorage of the roof to walls and columns, and of walls and columns to foundations, shall be provided to resist the uplift and sliding forces which result from the application of the prescribed forces. For additional requirements for masonry or concrete walls, see Section 1611.

1603.4 Critical Distribution of Live Loads. Where structural members are arranged so as to create continuity, the loading conditions which would cause maximum shear and bending moments along the member shall be investigated.

1603.5 Stress Increases. All allowable stresses and soil-bearing values specified in this code for working stress design may be increased one third when considering wind or earthquake forces either acting alone or when combined with vertical loads. No increase will be allowed for vertical loads acting alone.

1603.6 Load Factors and Load Combinations. When the design of a building, structure or portion thereof is based on ultimate strength design (concrete), plastic design (steel) or load and resistance factor design (steel), each component shall be designed to resist the most critical effects of the load factors and load combinations in the appropriate material chapter or U.B.C. standard. When the design of a building, structure or portion thereof is based on allowable stress or working stress design, each component shall be designed to resist the most critical effect resulting from the following combination of loads. (Floor live load shall not be included when its inclusion results in lower stresses in the member under investigation.)1

1. Dead plus floor live plus roof live (or snow).2

2. Dead plus floor live plus wind2 (or seismic).

3. Dead plus floor live plus wind plus snow/2.2

4. Dead plus floor live plus snow plus wind/2.2

5. Dead plus floor live plus snow3 plus seismic.


1 Lateral earth pressure shall be included in the design when it will result in a more critical combination.

2 Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three fourths of the snow load or one half of the wind load.

3 Design snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot (psf) (1.44 kN/) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where design snow load exeed 30 psf (1.44 kN/ ) the design snow load shall be included with seismic loads, but may be reduced up to 75 percent where consideration of sitting, configuration and load duration warrant when approved by the building official.


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