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Title: Section 1804  •  Size: 7268

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SECTION 1804 - FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION

1804.1 General. The classification of the soil at each building site shall be determined when required by the building official. The building official may require that this determination be made by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.

1804.2 Investigation. The classification shall be based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility, liquefaction and expansiveness.

In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, when required by the building official, the potential for seismically induced soil liquefaction and soil instability shall be evaluated as described in Section 1804.5.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. The building official may waive this evaluation upon receipt of written opinion of a qualified geotechnical engineer or geologist that liquefaction is not probable.

2. A detached, single-story dwelling of Group R, Division 3 Occupancy with or without attached garages.

3. Group U, Division 1 Occupancies.

4. Fences.

1804.3 Reports. The soil classification and design bearing capacity shall be shown on the plans, unless the foundation conforms to Table 18-I-D. The building official may require submission of a written report of the investigation which shall include, but need not be limited to, the following information:

1. A plot showing the location of all test borings and/or excavations.

2. Descriptions and classifications of the materials encountered.

3. Elevation of the water table, if encountered.

4. Recommendations for foundation type and design criteria, including bearing capacity, provisions to mitigate the effects of expansive soils, provisions to mitigate the effects of liquefaction and soil strength and the effects of adjacent loads.

5. Expected total and differential settlement.

1804.4 Expansive Soils. When expansive soils are present, the building official may require that special provisions be made in the foundation design and construction to safeguard against damage due to this expansiveness. The building official may require a special investigation and report to provide these design and construction criteria.

1804.5 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss. When required by Section 1804.2, the potential for soil liquefaction and soil strength loss during earthquakes shall be evaluated during the geotechnical investigation. The geotechnical report shall assess potential consequences of any liquefaction and soil strength loss, including estimation of differential settlement, lateral movement or reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity, and discuss mitigating measures. Such measures shall be given consideration in the design of the building and may include, but are not limited to, ground stabilization, selection of appropriate foundation type and depths, selection of appropriate structural systems to accommodate anticipated displacements or any combination of these measures.

The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be evaluated for a site peak ground acceleration that, as a minimum, conforms to the probability of exceedance specified in Section 1629.2. Peak ground acceleration may be determined based on a site-specific study taking into account soil amplification effects. In the absence of such a study, peak ground acceleration may be assumed equal to the seismic zone factor in Table 16-I.

1804.6 Adjacent Loads. Where footings are placed at varying elevations the effect of adjacent loads shall be included in the foundation design.

1804.7 Drainage. Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of surface water around buildings. (See also Section 1806.4.5.)

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