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Title: Section 1902  •  Size: 14102

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The following terms are defined for general use in this code. Specialized definitions appear in individual sections.

ADMIXTURE is material other than water, aggregate, or hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties.

AGGREGATE is granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag, and when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT, is aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 70 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (1120 kg/) or less.

AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a lightweight concrete specimen cured for seven days with neither loss nor gain of moisture at 60°F. to 80°F. (15.6°C. to 26.7°C.) and dried for 21 days in 50 ± 7 percent relative humidity at 73.4°F. ± 2°F. (23.0°C. ± 1.1C.).

ANCHORAGE in posttensioning is a device used to anchor tendons to concrete member; in pretensioning, a device used to anchor tendons during hardening of concrete.

BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting.

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS are materials as specified in Section 1903 which have cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as portland cement or blended hydraulic cements, or in combination with fly ash, raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

COLUMN is a member with a ratio of height-to-least-lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support axial compressive load.

COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS are concrete flexural members of precast and cast-in-place concrete elements or both constructed in separate placements but so interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit.

CONCRETE is a mixture of portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, with or without admixtures.

CONCRETE, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF (), is the compressive strength of concrete used in design and evaluated in accordance with provisions of Section 1905, expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa). Whenever the quantity is under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is intended, and result has units of psi (MPa).

CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT, is concrete containing lightweight aggregate having an air-dry unit weight as determined by definition above, not exceeding 115 pcf (1840 kg/). In this code, a lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed ``all-lightweight concrete'' and lightweight concrete in which all fine aggregate consists of normal-weight sand is termed "sand-lightweight concrete.''

CURVATURE FRICTION is friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile.

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT is deformed reinforcing bars, bar and rod mats, deformed wire, welded smooth wire fabric and welded deformed wire fabric.

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical section. See Section 1909.3.3.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.

EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS is the stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses have occurred, excluding effects of dead load and superimposed load.

EMBEDMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.

JACKING FORCE is the temporary force exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete.

LOAD, DEAD, is the dead weight supported by a member, as defined by Section 1602 (without load factors).

LOAD, FACTORED, is the load, multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion members by the strength design method of this code. See Sections 1908.1.1 and 1909.2.

LOAD, LIVE, is the live load specified by Section 1602 (without load factors).

LOAD, SERVICE, is the live and dead loads (without load factors).

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY is the ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below proportional limit of material. See Section 1908.5.

PEDESTAL is an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension of 3 or less.

PLAIN CONCRETE is concrete that is either unreinforced or contains less reinforcement than the minimum amount specified in this code for reinforced concrete. See Section 1923.

PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforcement that does not conform to definition of deformed reinforcement.

POSTTENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened.

PRECAST CONCRETE is plain or reinforced concrete element cast in other than its final position in the structure.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is reinforced concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses in concrete resulting from loads.

PRETENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which tendons are tensioned before concrete is placed.

REINFORCED CONCRETE is concrete reinforced with no less than the minimum amount required by this code, prestressed or nonprestressed, and designed on the assumption that the two materials act together in resisting forces.

REINFORCEMENT is material that conforms to Section 1903.5.1, excluding prestressing tendons unless specifically included.

SPAN LENGTH. See Section 1908.7.

SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT is continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix.

SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH () is the tensile strength of concrete. See Section 1905.1.4, last paragraph.

STIRRUP is reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member; typically bars, wires, or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) bent into L, U or rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle to longitudinal reinforcement. (The term "stirrups'' is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural members and the term ``ties'' to those in compression members.) See "tie."

STRENGTH, DESIGN, is the nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor f. See Section 1909.3.

STRENGTH, NOMINAL, is the strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and assumptions of the strength design method of this code before application of any strength-reduction factors. See Section 1909.3.1.

STRENGTH, REQUIRED, is the strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this code. See Section 1909.1.1.

STRESS is the intensity of force per unit area.

TENDON is a steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rod or strand, or a bundle of such elements, used to impart prestress to concrete.

TIE is a loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement. See "stirrup."

TRANSFER is the act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete member.

WALL is a member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces.


WOBBLE FRICTION in prestressed concrete, is friction caused by unintended deviation of prestressing sheath or duct from its specified profile.

YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum yield strength or yield point of reinforcement in psi.

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