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Title: Section 1904  •  Size: 7463

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SECTION 1904 - DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS

1904.0 Notation.

= specified compressive strength of concrete, psi (MPa).

1904.1 Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio.

1904.1.1 The water-cementitious materials ratios specified in Tables 19-A-2 and 19-A-3 shall be calculated using the weight of cement plus the weight of fly ash and pozzolans and slag, if any.

1904.2 Freezing and Thawing Exposures.

1904.2.1 Normal-weight and lightweight concrete exposed to freezing and thawing or deicer chemicals shall be air entrained with air content indicated in Table 19-A-1. Tolerance on air content as delivered shall be ± 1.5 percent. For specified compressive strength greater than 5,000 psi (34.47 MPa), air content indicated in Table 19-A-1 may be reduced by 1 percent.

1904.2.2 Concrete that will be subjected to the exposures given in Table 19-A-2 shall conform to the corresponding maximum water-cementitious materials ratios and minimum specified concrete compressive strength requirements of that table. In addition, concrete that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall conform to the limitations of Section 1904.2.3.

1904.2.3 For concrete exposed to deicing chemicals, the maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans or slag that is included in the calculation of water-cementitious materials ratio shall not exceed the following percentages of the total weight of portland cement plus fly ash, other pozzolans and slag.

1904.2.3.1 The combined weight of fly ash and other pozzolans shall not exceed 25 percent of the total weight of cementitious materials. The fly ash and other pozzolans present in a Type IP or IPM blended cement shall be included in the calculated percentage.

1904.2.3.2 The weight of slag shall not exceed 50 percent of the total weight of cementitious materials. The slag used in the manufacture of Type IP or IPM blended hydraulic cement shall be included in the calculated percentage.

1904.2.3.3 If fly ash or other pozzolans are used in concrete with slag, the portland cement constituent shall not be less than 50 percent of the total weight of cementitious materials. Fly ash or other pozzolans shall constitute no more than 25 percent of the total weight of cementitious materials.

1904.3 Sulfate Exposure.

1904.3.1 Concrete to be exposed to sulfate-containing solutions or soils shall conform to the requirements of Table 19-A-3 or shall be concrete made with a cement that provides sulfate resistance and that has a maximum water-cementitious materials ratio and minimum compressive strength set forth in Table 19-A-3.

1904.3.2 Calcium chloride as an admixture shall not be used in concrete to be exposed to severe or very severe sulfate-containing solutions, as defined in Table 19-A-3.

1904.4 Corrosion Protection of Reinforcement.

1904.4.1 For corrosion protection, maximum water soluble chloride ion concentrations in hardened concrete at ages from 28 to 42 days contributed from the ingredients, including water, aggregates, cementious materials and admixtures shall not exceed the limits of Table 19-A-4.

1904.4.2 When reinforced concrete will be exposed to deicing salts, brackish water, sea water or spray from these sources, requirements of Table 19-A-2 for water-cementitious materials ratio and concrete strength and the minimum concrete cover requirements of Section 1907.7 shall be satisfied.

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