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Title: Section 1906  •  Size: 13508

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1906.1 Design of Formwork.

1906.1.1 Forms shall result in a final structure that conforms to shapes, lines and dimensions of the members as required by the design drawings and specifications.

1906.1.2 Forms shall be substantial and sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of mortar.

1906.1.3 Forms shall be properly braced or tied together to maintain position and shape.

1906.1.4 Forms and their supports shall be designed so as not to damage previously placed structure.

1906.1.5 Design of formwork shall include consideration of the following factors:

1. Rate and method of placing concrete.

2. Construction loads, including vertical, horizontal and impact loads.

3. Special form requirements for construction of shells, folded plates, domes, architectural concrete or similar types of elements.

1906.1.6 Forms for prestressed concrete members shall be designed and constructed to permit movement of the member without damage during application of prestressing force.

1906.2 Removal of Forms and Shores.

1906.2.1 Construction loads shall not be supported on, or any shoring removed from, any part of the structure under construction except when that portion of the structure in combination with remaining forming and shoring system has sufficient strength to support safely its weight and loads placed thereon.

1906.2.1.1 Sufficient strength shall be demonstrated by structural analysis considering proposed loads, strength of forming and shoring system and concrete strength data. Concrete strength data may be based on tests of field-cured cylinders or, when approved by the building official, on other procedures to evaluate concrete strength. Structural analysis and concrete strength test data shall be furnished to the building official when so required.

1906.2.2 Construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead load plus specified live load shall not be supported on any unshored portion of the structure under construction, unless analysis indicates adequate strength to support such additional loads.

1906.2.3 Forms shall be removed in such manner as not to impair safety and serviceability of the structure. All concrete to be exposed by form removal shall have sufficient strength not to be damaged thereby.

1906.2.4 Form supports for prestressed concrete members may be removed when sufficient prestressing has been applied to enable prestressed members to carry their dead load and anticipated construction loads.

1906.3 Conduits and Pipes Embedded in Concrete.

1906.3.1 Conduits, pipes and sleeves of any material not harmful to concrete and within limitations of this subsection may be embedded in concrete with approval of the building official, provided they are not considered to replace structurally the displaced concrete.

1906.3.2 Conduits and pipes of aluminum shall not be embedded in structural concrete unless effectively coated or covered to prevent aluminum-concrete reaction or electrolytic action between aluminum and steel.

1906.3.3 Conduits, pipes and sleeves passing through a slab, wall or beam shall not impair significantly the strength of the construction.

1906.3.4 Conduits and pipes, with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more than 4 percent of the area of cross section on which strength is calculated or which is required for fire protection.

1906.3.5 Except when plans for conduits and pipes are approved by the building official, conduits and pipes embedded within a slab, wall or beam (other than those merely passing through) shall satisfy the following:

1906.3.5.1 They shall not be larger in outside dimension than one third the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam in which they are embedded.

1906.3.5.2 They shall be spaced not closer than three diameters or widths on center.

1906.3.5.3 They shall not impair significantly the strength of the construction.

1906.3.6 Conduits, pipes and sleeves may be considered as replacing structurally in compression the displaced concrete, provided:

1906.3.6.1 They are not exposed to rusting or other deterioration.

1906.3.6.2 They are of uncoated or galvanized iron or steel not thinner than standard Schedule 40 steel pipe.

1906.3.6.3 They have a nominal inside diameter not over 2 inches (51 mm) and are spaced not less than three diameters on centers.

1906.3.7 Pipes and fittings shall be designed to resist effects of the material, pressure and temperature to which they will be subjected.

1906.3.8 No liquid, gas or vapor, except water not exceeding 90°F. (32.2°C.) or 50 psi (0.34 MPa) pressure, shall be placed in the pipes until the concrete has attained its design strength.

1906.3.9 In all solid slabs, piping, unless it is used for radiant heating or snow melting, shall be placed between top and bottom reinforcement.

1906.3.10 Concrete cover for pipes, conduit and fittings shall not be less than 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) for concrete exposed to earth or weather, or less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground.

1906.3.11 Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of concrete section shall be provided normal to the piping.

1906.3.12 Piping and conduit shall be so fabricated and installed that cutting, bending or displacement of reinforcement from its proper location will not be required.

1906.4 Construction Joints.

1906.4.1 Surface of concrete construction joints shall be cleaned and laitance removed.

1906.4.2 Immediately before new concrete is placed, all construction joints shall be wetted and standing water removed.

1906.4.3 Construction joints shall be so made and located as not to impair the strength of the structure. Provision shall be made for transfer of shear and other forces through construction joints. See Section 1911.7.9.

1906.4.4 Construction joints in floors shall be located within the middle third of spans of slabs, beams and girders. Joints in girders shall be offset a minimum distance of two times the width of intersecting beams.

1906.4.5 Beams, girders or slabs supported by columns or walls shall not be cast or erected until concrete in the vertical support members is no longer plastic.

1906.4.6 Beams, girders, haunches, drop panels and capitals shall be placed monolithically as part of a slab system, unless otherwise shown in design drawings or specifications.

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