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Title: Section 2104  •  Size: 19041

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SECTION 2104 - CONSTRUCTION

2104.1 General. Masonry shall be constructed according to the provisions of this section.

2104.2 Materials: Handling, Storage and Preparation. All materials shall comply with applicable requirements of Section 2102. Storage, handling and preparation at the site shall conform also to the following:

1. Masonry materials shall be stored so that at the time of use the materials are clean and structurally suitable for the intended use.

2. All metal reinforcement shall be free from loose rust and other coatings that would inhibit reinforcing bond.

3. At the time of laying, burned clay units and sand lime units shall have an initial rate of absorption not exceeding 0.035 ounce per square inch (1.6 L/) during a period of one minute. In the absorption test, the surface of the unit shall be held 1/8 inch (3 mm) below the surface of the water.

4. Concrete masonry units shall not be wetted unless otherwise approved.

5. Materials shall be stored in a manner such that deterioration or intrusion of foreign materials is prevented and that the material will be capable of meeting applicable requirements at the time of mixing.

6. The method of measuring materials for mortar and grout shall be such that proportions of the materials can be controlled.

7. Mortar or grout mixed at the jobsite shall be mixed for a period of time not less than three minutes or more than 10 minutes in a mechanical mixer with the amount of water required to provide the desired workability. Hand mixing of small amounts of mortar is permitted. Mortar may be retempered. Mortar or grout which has hardened or stiffened due to hydration of the cement shall not be used. In no case shall mortar be used two and one-half hours, nor grout used one and one-half hours, after the initial mixing water has been added to the dry ingredients at the jobsite.

EXCEPTION: Dry mixes for mortar and grout which are blended in the factory and mixed at the jobsite shall be mixed in mechanical mixers until workable, but not to exceed 10 minutes.

2104.3 Cold-weather Construction.

2104.3.1 General. All materials shall be delivered in a usable condition and stored to prevent wetting by capillary action, rain and snow.

The tops of all walls not enclosed or sheltered shall be covered with a strong weather-resistive material at the end of each day or shutdown.

Partially completed walls shall be covered at all times when work is not in progress. Covers shall be draped over the wall and extend a minimum of 2 feet (600 mm) down both sides and shall be securely held in place, except when additional protection is required in Section 2104.3.4.

2104.3.2 Preparation. If ice or snow has inadvertently formed on a masonry bed, it shall be thawed by application of heat carefully applied until top surface of the masonry is dry to the touch.

A section of masonry deemed frozen and damaged shall be removed before continuing construction of that section.

2104.3.3 Construction. Masonry units shall be dry at time of placement. Wet or frozen masonry units shall not be laid.

Special requirements for various temperature ranges are as follows:

1. Air temperature 40°F. to 32°F. (4.5°C. to 0°C.): Sand or mixing water shall be heated to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F. and 120°F. (4.5°C. and 49°C.).

2. Air temperature 32°F. to 25°F. (0°C. to -4°C.): Sand and mixing water shall be heated to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F. and 120°F. (4.5°C. and 49°C.). Maintain temperatures of mortar on boards above freezing.

3. Air temperature 25°F. to 20°F. (-4°C. to -7°C.): Sand and mixing water shall be heated to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F. and 120°F. (4.5°C. and 49°C.). Maintain mortar temperatures on boards above freezing. Salamanders or other sources of heat shall be used on both sides of walls under construction. Windbreaks shall be employed when wind is in excess of 15 miles per hour (24 km/h).

4. Air temperature 20°F. (-7°C.) and below: Sand and mixing water shall be heated to provide mortar temperatures between 40°F. and 120°F. (4.5°C. and 49°C.). Enclosure and auxiliary heat shall be provided to maintain air temperature above 32°F. (0°C.). Temperature of units when laid shall not be less than 20°F. (-7°C.).

2104.3.4 Protection. When the mean daily air temperature is 40°F. to 32°F. (4.5°C. to 0°C.), masonry shall be protected from rain or snow for 24 hours by covering with a weather-resistive membrane.

When the mean daily air temperature is 32°F. to 25°F. (0°C. to -4°C.), masonry shall be completely covered with a weather-resistive membrane for 24 hours.

When the mean daily air temperature is 25°F. to 20°F. (-4°C. to -7°C.), masonry shall be completely covered with insulating blankets or equally protected for 24 hours.

When the mean daily air temperature is 20°F. (-7°C.) and below, masonry temperature shall be maintained above 32°F. (0°C.) for 24 hours by enclosure and supplementary heat, by electric heating blankets, infrared heat lamps or other approved methods.

2104.3.5 Placing grout and protection of grouted masonry. When air temperatures fall below 40°F. (4.5°C.), grout mixing water and aggregate shall be heated to produce grout temperatures between 40°F. and 120°F. (4.5°C. and 49°C.).

Masonry to be grouted shall be maintained above freezing during grout placement and for at least 24 hours after placement.

When atmospheric temperatures fall below 20°F. (-7°C.), enclosures shall be provided around the masonry during grout placement and for at least 24 hours after placement.

2104.4 Placing Masonry Units.

2104.4.1 Mortar. The mortar shall be sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient pressure to extrude mortar from the joint and produce a tight joint. Deep furrowing which produces voids shall not be used.

The initial bed joint thickness shall not be less than 1/4 inch (6 mm) or more than 1 inch (25 mm); subsequent bed joints shall not be less than 1/4 inch (6 mm) or more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) in thickness.

2104.4.2 Surfaces. Surfaces to be in contact with mortar or grout shall be clean and free of deleterious materials.

2104.4.3 Solid masonry units. Solid masonry units shall have full head and bed joints.

2104.4.4 Hollow-masonry units. All head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the thickness of the shell.

Head joints of open-end units with beveled ends that are to be fully grouted need not be mortared. The beveled ends shall form a grout key which permits grout within 5/8 inch (16 mm) of the face of the unit. The units shall be tightly butted to prevent leakage of grout.

2104.5 Reinforcement Placing. Reinforcement details shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. Metal reinforcement shall be located in accordance with the plans and specifications. Reinforcement shall be secured against displacement prior to grouting by wire positioners or other suitable devices at intervals not exceeding 200 bar diameters.

Tolerances for the placement of reinforcement in walls and flexural elements shall be plus or minus 1/2 inch (13 mm) for d equal to 8 inches (200 mm) or less, ± 1 inch (± 25 mm) for d equal to 24 inches (600 mm) or less but greater than 8 inches (200 mm), and ± 11/4 inches (32 mm) for d greater than 24 inches (600 mm).

Tolerance for longitudinal location of reinforcement shall be ± 2 inches (51 mm).

2104.6 Grouted Masonry.

2104.6.1 General conditions. Grouted masonry shall be constructed in such a manner that all elements of the masonry act together as a structural element.

Prior to grouting, the grout space shall be clean so that all spaces to be filled with grout do not contain mortar projections greater than 1/2 inch (13 mm), mortar droppings or other foreign material. Grout shall be placed so that all spaces designated to be grouted shall be filled with grout and the grout shall be confined to those specific spaces.

Grout materials and water content shall be controlled to provide adequate fluidity for placement without segregation of the constituents, and shall be mixed thoroughly.

The grouting of any section of wall shall be completed in one day with no interruptions greater than one hour.

Between grout pours, a horizontal construction joint shall be formed by stopping all wythes at the same elevation and with the grout stopping a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) below a mortar joint, except at the top of the wall. Where bond beams occur, the grout pour shall be stopped a minimum of 1/2 inch (13 mm) below the top of the masonry.

Size and height limitations of the grout space or cell shall not be less than shown in Table 21-C. Higher grout pours or smaller cavity widths or cell size than shown in Table 21-C may be used when approved, if it is demonstrated that grout spaces will be properly filled.

Cleanouts shall be provided for all grout pours over 5 feet (1524 mm) in height.

Where required, cleanouts shall be provided in the bottom course at every vertical bar but shall not be spaced more than 32 inches (813 mm) on center for solidly grouted masonry. When cleanouts are required, they shall be sealed after inspection and before grouting.

Where cleanouts are not provided, special provisions must be made to keep the bottom and sides of the grout spaces, as well as the minimum total clear area as required by Table 21-C, clean and clear prior to grouting.

Units may be laid to the full height of the grout pour and grout shall be placed in a continuous pour in grout lifts not exceeding 6 feet (1830 mm) . When approved, grout lifts may be greater than 6 feet (1830 mm) if it can be demonstrated the grout spaces can be properly filled.

All cells and spaces containing reinforcement shall be filled with grout.

2104.6.2 Construction requirements. Reinforcement shall be placed prior to grouting. Bolts shall be accurately set with templates or by approved equivalent means and held in place to prevent dislocation during grouting.

Segregation of the grout materials and damage to the masonry shall be avoided during the grouting process.

Grout shall be consolidated by mechanical vibration during placement before loss of plasticity in a manner to fill the grout space. Grout pours greater than 12 inches (300 mm) in height shall be reconsolidated by mechanical vibration to minimize voids due to water loss. Grout pours 12 inches (300 mm) or less in height shall be mechanically vibrated or puddled.

In one-story buildings having wood-frame exterior walls, foundations not over 24 inches (600 mm) high measured from the top of the footing may be constructed of hollow-masonry units laid in running bond without mortared head joints. Any standard shape unit may be used, provided the masonry units permit horizontal flow of grout to adjacent units. Grout shall be solidly poured to the full height in one lift and shall be puddled or mechanically vibrated.

In nonstructural elements which do not exceed 8 feet (2440 mm) in height above the highest point of lateral support, including fireplaces and residential chimneys, mortar of pouring consistency may be substituted for grout when the masonry is constructed and grouted in pours of 12 inches (300 mm) or less in height.

In multiwythe grouted masonry, vertical barriers of masonry shall be built across the grout space the entire height of the grout pour and spaced not more than 30 feet (9144 mm) horizontally. The grouting of any section of wall between barriers shall be completed in one day with no interruption longer than one hour.

2104.7 Aluminum Equipment. Grout shall not be handled nor pumped utilizing aluminum equipment unless it can be demonstrated with the materials and equipment to be used that there will be no deleterious effect on the strength of the grout.

2104.8 Joint Reinforcement. Wire joint reinforcement used in the design as principal reinforcement in hollow-unit construction shall be continuous between supports unless splices are made by lapping:

1. Fifty-four wire diameters in a grouted cell, or

2. Seventy-five wire diameters in the mortared bed joint, or

3. In alternate bed joints of running bond masonry a distance not less than 54 diameters plus twice the spacing of the bed joints, or

4. As required by calculation and specific location in areas of minimum stress, such as points of inflection.

Side wires shall be deformed and shall conform to U.B.C. Standard 21-10, Part I, Joint Reinforcement for Masonry.

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