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Title: Section 2311  •  Size: 7701

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SECTION 2311 - TIMBER CONNECTORS AND FASTENERS

2311.1 General. Timber connectors and fasteners may be used to transmit forces between wood members and between wood and metal members. The allowable loads and installation of timber connectors and fasteners shall be in accordance with the provisions set forth in Division III. For connectors and fasteners where the wood is wet at time of fabrication or wet in service, the allowable loads shall be modified in accordance with Division III.

Safe loads and design practices for types of connectors and fasteners not mentioned or fully covered in Division III may be determined in a manner approved by the building official.

Fasteners for pressure-preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners for wood foundations shall be as required in Chapter 18, Division II.

EXCEPTION: When approved, fasteners used in contact with preservative-treated wood products when not below grade or exposed to weather.

2311.2 Bolts. Safe loads in pounds for bolts in shear in seasoned lumber of Douglas fir-larch and southern pine shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 23-I-F. (For other species and wet conditions, see Division III.) Bolt diameters in wood connections shall be limited to a maximum 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter.

Allowable shear values used to connect a wood member to concrete or masonry are permitted to be determined as one half the tabulated double shear values for a wood member twice the thickness of the member attached to the concrete or masonry.

2311.3 Nails and Spikes.

2311.3.1 Safe lateral strength. A common wire nail driven perpendicular to grain of the wood, when used to fasten wood members together, shall not be subjected to a greater load causing shear and bending than the safe lateral strength of the wire nail or spike as set forth in Table 23-I-G.

A wire nail driven parallel to the grain of the wood shall not be subjected to more than two thirds of the lateral load allowed when driven perpendicular to the grain. Toenails shall not be subjected to more than five sixths of the lateral load allowed for nails driven perpendicular to the grain.

2311.3.2 Safe resistance to withdrawal. A wire nail driven perpendicular to grain of the wood shall not be subjected to a greater load, tending to cause withdrawal, than the safe resistance of the nail to withdrawal, as set forth in Table 23-I-H.

Nails driven parallel to grain of the wood shall not be allowed for resisting withdrawal forces.

2311.3.3 Spacing and penetration. Common wire nails shall have penetration into the piece receiving the point as set forth in Table 23-I-G. Nails or spikes for which the wire gages or lengths are not set forth in Table 23-I-G shall have a required penetration of not less than 12 diameters, and allowable loads may be interpolated. Design values shall not be increased when the penetration of nails into the member holding the point is larger than required by this item.

For wood-to-wood joints, the spacing center to center of nails in the direction of stress shall not be less than the required penetration. Edge or end distances in the direction of stress shall not be less than one half of the required penetration. All spacing and edge and end distances shall be such as to avoid splitting of the wood.

Holes for nails, where necessary to prevent splitting, shall be bored of a diameter smaller than that of the nails.

2311.4 Drift Bolts or Pins, Wood Screws and Lag Screws. Connections involving the use of drift bolts or pins, wood screws and lag screws shall be designed in accordance with the provisions set forth in Division III.

2311.5 Joist Hangers and Framing Anchors. Connections depending on joist hangers or framing anchors, ties, and other mechanical fastenings not otherwise covered may be used where approved.

2311.6 Metal Plate Connectors. The material and workmanship during fabrication and the design of metal plate connectors employed as joint connectors for light wood trusses shall conform with the requirements of Division III.

Each truss manufacturer shall retain an approved agency having no financial interest in the plant being inspected to make nonscheduled inspections of truss fabrication and delivery and operations. The inspection shall cover all phases of truss operation, including lumber storage, handling, cutting, fixtures, presses or rollers, fabrication, bundling and banding, handling and delivery.

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