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Title: Section 2365  •  Size: 16577

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SECTION 2365 - GENERAL

2365.1 Purpose. The provisions of this chapter are intended to promote public safety and welfare by reducing the risk of wind-induced damages to conventional light-frame construction.

2365.2 Scope. This chapter applies to regular-shaped buildings which have roof structural members spanning 32 feet (9.75 mm) or less, are not more than three stories in height, are of conventional light-frame construction and are located in areas with a basic wind speed from 80 through 110 miles per hour (mph) (129 km/h through 177 km/h).

EXCEPTION: Detached carports and garages not exceeding 600 square feet (55.7 ) and accessory to Group R, Division 3 Occupancies need only comply with the roof-member-to-wall-tie requirements of Section 2365.5.8.

2365.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter, certain terms are defined as follows:

CORROSION RESISTANT or NONCORROSIVE is material having a corrosion resistance equal to or greater than a hot-dipped galvanized coating of 1.5 ounces of zinc per square foot (4 g/) of surface area.

2365.4 General. The requirements of Section 2326 are applicable except as specifically modified by this chapter. Other methods may be used, provided a satisfactory design is submitted showing compliance with the provisions of Section 1611 and other applicable portions of this code.

In addition to the other provisions of this chapter, foundations for buildings in areas subject to wave action or tidal surge shall be designed in accordance with approved national standards.

When an element is required to be corrosion resistant or noncorrosive, all of its parts, such as screws, nails, wire, dowels, bolts, nuts, washers, shims, anchors, ties and attachments, shall also be corrosion resistant or noncorrosive.

2365.5 Complete Load Path and Uplift Ties.

2365.5.1 General. Blocking, bridging, straps, approved framing anchors or mechanical fasteners shall be installed to provide continuous ties from the roof to the foundation system. (See Figure A-23-1.)

Tie straps shall be 1 1/8-inch (28.6 mm) by 0.036-inch (0.91 mm) (No. 20 gage) sheet steel and shall be corrosion resistant as herein specified. All metal connectors and fasteners used in exposed locations or in areas otherwise subject to corrosion shall be of corrosion-resistant or noncorrosive material.

2365.5.2 Walls-to-foundation tie. Exterior walls shall be tied to a continuous foundation, or an elevated foundation system in accordance with Section 2365.10.

2365.5.3 Sills and foundation tie. Foundation plates resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall be bolted to the foundation with not less than 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) anchor bolts with 7-inch-minimum (178 mm) embedment into the foundation. In areas where the basic wind speed is 90 mph (145 km/h) or greater, the maximum spacing of anchor bolts shall be 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. Structures located where the basic wind speed is less than 90 mph (145 km/h) may have anchor bolts spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center.

2365.5.4 Floor-to-foundation tie. The lowest-level exterior wall studs shall be connected to the foundation sill plate or an approved elevated foundation system with bent tie straps spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center. Tie straps shall be nailed and installed in accordance with Table A-23-B and Figure A-23-1.

2365.5.5 Wall framing details. The spacing of 2-inch by 4-inch studs (51 mm by 102 mm) in exterior walls shall not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) on center for areas with a basic wind speed of 90 mph (145 km/h) or greater.

Mechanical fasteners complying with this chapter shall be installed as required to connect studs to the sole plates, foundation sill plate and top plates of the wall.

Interior main cross-stud partitions shall be installed approximately perpendicular to the exterior wall when the length of the structure exceeds the width. The maximum distance between these partitions shall not exceed the width of the structure. Interior main cross-stud partition walls shall be securely fastened to exterior walls at the point of intersection with fasteners as required by Table 23-I-Q. The main cross-stud partitions shall be covered on both sides by materials as described in Section 2365.5.6.

2365.5.6 Wall sheathing. All exterior walls and required interior main cross-stud partitions shall be sheathed in accordance with Table A-23-A. The total width of sheathed wall elements shall not be less than 50 percent of the exterior wall length or 60 percent of the width of the building for required interior main cross-stud partitions. The exterior wall sheathing or covering shall extend from the foundation sill plate or girder to the top plates at the roof level and shall be adequately attached thereto.

A sheathed wall element not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be installed at each corner or as near thereto as possible. There shall not be less than one 4-foot (1219 mm) sheathed wall element for every 20 feet (6096 mm) or fraction thereof of wall length. The height-to-length ratio of required sheathed wall elements shall not exceed 3 for wood structural panel or particleboard and 1 1/2 (38 mm) for other sheathing materials listed in Table A-23-A.

2365.5.7 Floor-to-floor tie. Upper-level exterior wall studs shall be aligned and connected to the wall studs below with a tie strap as required by Table A-23-B.

2365.5.8 Roof-members-to-wall tie. Tie straps shall be provided from the side of the roof-framing member to the exterior studs, posts or other supporting members below the roof. The wall studs to which the roof-framing members are tied shall be aligned with the roof-framing member and be connected in accordance with Table A-23-B.

The eave overhang shall not exceed 3 feet (914 mm) unless an analysis is provided showing that the required resistance is provided to prevent uplift.

Where openings exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in width, the required tie straps shall be doubled at each edge of the opening and connected to a doubled full-height wall stud. When openings exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) in width, ties designed to prevent uplift shall be provided.

EXCEPTION: The opening width may be increased to 16 feet (4877 mm) for garages and carports accessory to Group R, Division 3 Occupancies when constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Approved column bases shall be a minimum 3/16-inch (4.8 mm) steel plate embedded not less than8 inches (203 mm) into the concrete footing and connected to a minimum 4-inch by 4-inch (102 mm by 102 mm) wood post with two 5/8-inch-diameter (15.9 mm) through bolts.

2. Beams over openings shall be connected to minimum 4-inch by 4-inch (102 mm by 102 mm) wood posts below with an approved 3/16-inch (4.8 mm) steel post cap with two 5/8-inch-diameter (15.9 mm) through bolts to the posts and to the beams.

2365.5.9 Ridge ties. Opposing rafters shall be aligned at the ridge and be connected at the rafters with a tie strap in accordance with Table A-23-C.

2365.6 Masonry Veneer. Anchor ties shall be spaced so as to support not more than 1 1/3 square feet (860 ) of wall area but not more than 12 inches (305 mm) on center vertically. The materials and connection details shall comply with Chapter 14.

2365.7 Roof Sheathing. Solid roof sheathing shall be applied and shall consist of a minimum 1-inch-thick (25.4 mm) nominal lumber applied diagonally or a minimum 15/32-inch-thick (11.9 mm) wood structural panel or particleboard or other approved sheathing applied with the long dimension perpendicular to supporting rafters. Sheathing shall be nailed to roof framing in an approved manner. The end joints of wood structural panels or particleboard shall be staggered and shall occur over blocking, rafters or other supports.

2365.8 Gable-end Walls. The roof overhang at gabled ends shall not exceed 2 feet (610 mm) unless an analysis showing that the required resistance to prevent uplift is provided.

Gable-end wall studs shall be continuous between points of lateral support which are perpendicular to the plane of the wall.

Gable-end wall studs shall be attached with approved mechanical fasteners at the top and bottom.

2365.9 Roof Covering. Roof coverings shall be approved and shall be installed and fastened in accordance with Chapter 15 and with the manufacturer's instructions. In areas with basic wind speeds of 90 mph (145 km/h) or greater strip asphalt shingles shall be fastened with a minimum of six fasteners and hand sealed.

2365.10 Elevated Foundation.

2365.10.1 General. When approved, elevated foundations supporting not more than one story and meeting the provisions of this section may be used. A foundation investigation may be required by the building official.

2365.10.2 Material. All exposed wood-framing members shall be treated wood. All metal connectors and fasteners used in exposed locations shall be corrosion-resistant or noncorrosive steel.

2365.10.3 Wood piles. The spacing of wood piles shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) on center. Square piles shall not be less than 10 inches (254 mm) and tapered piles shall have a tip of not less than 8 inches (203 mm). Ten-inch-square (64 516 ) piles shall have a minimum embedment length of 10 feet (3048 mm) and shall project not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above undisturbed ground surface. Eight-inch (203 mm) taper piles shall have a minimum embedment length of 14 feet (4267 mm) and shall project not more than 7 feet (2134 mm) above undisturbed ground surface.

2365.10.4 Girders. Floor girders shall be solid sawn timber, built-up 2-inch-thick (51 mm) lumber or trusses. Splices shall occur over wood piles. The floor girders shall span in the direction parallel to the potential floodwater and wave action.

2365.10.5 Connections. Wood piles may be notched to provide a shelf for supporting the floor girders. The total notching shall not exceed 50 percent of the pile cross section. Approved bolted connections with 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) corrosion-resistant or noncorrosive steel plates and 3/4-inch-diameter (19 mm) bolts shall be provided. Each end of the girder shall be connected to the piles using a minimum of two 3/4-inch-diameter (19 mm) bolts.


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