Title: Section 3102 • Size: 25505
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3102.1 Scope. Chimneys, flues, fireplaces and barbecues, and their connections, carrying products of combustion shall conform to the requirements of this section.
BARBECUE is a stationary open hearth or brazier, either fuel fired or electric, used for food preparation.
CHIMNEY is a hollow shaft containing one or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying products of combustion to the outside atmosphere.
Chimney, High-heat Industrial Appliance-type, is a factory-built, masonry or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F. (1093°C.) measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Low-heat Industrial Appliance-type, is a factory-built, masonry or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F. (538°C.) under normal operating conditions but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F. (760°C.) during intermittent forced firing for periods up to one hour. All temperatures are measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Medium-heat Industrial Appliance-type, is a factory-built, masonry or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 2,000°F. (1093°C.) measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Residential Appliance-type, is a factory-built or masonry chimney suitable for removing products of combustion from residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F. (538°C.) measured at the appliance flue outlet.
CHIMNEY CONNECTOR is the pipe or breeching which connects a fuel-burning appliance to a chimney. (See Chapter 9, Mechanical Code.)
CHIMNEY, FACTORY-BUILT, is a chimney manufactured at a location other than the building site and composed of listed factory-built components assembled in accordance with the terms of the listing to form the completed chimney.
CHIMNEY LINER is a lining material of fireclay tile or approved fireclay refractory brick. For guideline standard on fireclay refractory brick see Sections 3502 and 3503, ASTM C 27, Fireclay Refractories.
FIREBRICK is a refractory brick.
FIREPLACE is a hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.
Factory-built Fireplace is a listed assembly of a fire chamber, its chimney and related factory-made parts designed for unit assembly without requiring field construction. Factory-built fireplaces are not dependent on mortar-filled joints for continued safe use.
Masonry Fireplace is a hearth and fire chamber of solid masonry units such as bricks, stones, masonry units, or reinforced concrete provided with a suitable chimney.
MASONRY CHIMNEY is a chimney of masonry units, bricks, stones or listed masonry chimney units lined with approved flue liners. For the purpose of this chapter, masonry chimneys shall include reinforced concrete chimneys.
3102.3 Chimneys, General.
3102.3.1 Chimney support. Chimneys shall be designed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter and applicable provisions of Chapters 16, 18, 19, 21 and 22 of this code. A chimney shall not support any structural load other than its own weight unless designed as a supporting member.
3102.3.2 Construction. Each chimney shall be so constructed as to safely convey flue gases not exceeding the maximum temperatures for the type of construction as set forth in Table 31-B and shall be capable of producing a draft at the appliance not less than that required for safe operation.
3102.3.3 Clearance. Clearance to combustible material shall be as required by Table 31-B.
3102.3.4 Lining. When required by Table 31-B, chimneys shall be lined with fireclay flue tile, firebrick, molded refractory units or other approved lining not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) thick as set forth in Table 31-B. Chimney liners shall be carefully bedded in approved mortar with close-fitting joints left smooth on the inside.
3102.3.5 Area. Chimney passageways shall not be smaller in area than the vent connection on the appliance attached thereto or not less than that set forth in Table 31-A, unless engineering methods approved by the building official have been used to design the system.
3102.3.6 Height and termination. Every chimney shall extend above the roof and the highest elevation of any part of a building as shown in Table 31-B. For altitudes over 2,000 feet (610 m), the building official shall be consulted in determining the height of the chimney.
3102.3.7 Cleanouts. Cleanout openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the base of every masonry chimney.
3102.3.8 Spark arrester. Where determined necessary by the building official due to local climatic conditions or where sparks escaping from the chimney would create a hazard, chimneys attached to any appliance or fireplace that burns solid fuel shall be equipped with an approved spark arrester. The net free area of the spark arrester shall not be less than four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney. The spark arrester screen shall have heat and corrosion resistance equivalent to (0.109 inch (2.77 mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) wire, 0.042 inch (1.07 mm) (No. 19 B.W. gage) galvanized wire or 0.022 inch (0.56 mm) (No. 24 B.W. gage) stainless steel. Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter larger than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall not block the passage of spheres having a diameter of less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
Chimneys used with fireplaces or heating appliances in which solid or liquid fuel is used shall be provided with a spark arrester as required in the Fire Code.
EXCEPTION: Chimneys which are located more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from any mountainous, brush-covered or forest-covered land or land covered with flammable material and are not attached to a structure having less than a Class C roof covering, as set forth in Chapter 15.
3102.4 Masonry Chimneys.
3102.4.1 Design. Masonry chimneys shall be designed and constructed to comply with Sections 3102.3.2 and 3102.4.2.
3102.4.2 Walls. Walls of masonry chimneys shall be constructed as set forth in Table 31-B.
3102.4.3 Reinforcing and seismic anchorage. Unless a specific design is provided, every masonry or concrete chimney in Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4 shall be reinforced with not less than fourNo. 4 steel reinforcing bars conforming to the provisions of Chapter 19 or 21 of this code. The bars shall extend the full height of the chimney and shall be spliced in accordance with the applicable requirements of Chapter 19 or 21. In masonry chimneys the vertical bars shall have a minimum cover of 1/2 inch (13 mm) of grout or mortar tempered to a pouring consistency. The bars shall be tied horizontally at 18-inch (457 mm) intervals with not less than 1/4-inch-diameter (6.4 mm) steel ties. The slope of the inclined portion of the offset in vertical bars shall not exceed 2 units vertical in 1 unit horizontal (200% slope). Two ties shall also be placed at each bend in vertical bars. Where the width of the chimney exceeds 40 inches (1016 mm), two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional flue incorporated in the chimney or for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.
In Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4, all masonry and concrete chimneys shall be anchored at each floor or ceiling line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except when constructed completely within the exterior walls of the building. Anchorage shall consist of two 3/16-inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 25 mm) steel straps cast at least 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney with a 180-degree bend with a 6-inch (152 mm) extension around the vertical reinforcing bars in the outer face of the chimney.
Each strap shall be fastened to the structural framework of the building with two 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) bolts per strap. Where the joists do not head into the chimney, the anchor strap shall be connected to 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) ties crossing a minimum of four joists. The ties shall be connected to each joist with two 16d nails. As an alternative to the 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) ties, each anchor strap shall be connected to the structural framework by two 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) bolts in an approved manner.
3102.4.4 Chimney offset. Masonry chimneys may be offset at a slope of not more than 4 inches in 24 inches (102 mm in 610 mm), but not more than one third of the dimension of the chimney, in the direction of the offset. The slope of the transition from the fireplace to the chimney shall not exceed 2 units vertical in 1 unit horizontal (200% slope).
3102.4.5 Change in size or shape. Changes in the size or shape of a masonry chimney, where the chimney passes through the roof, shall not be made within a distance of 6 inches (152 mm) above or below the roof joists or rafters.
3102.4.6 Separation of masonry chimney passageways. Two or more flues in a chimney shall be separated by masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) thick bonded into the masonry wall of the chimney.
3102.4.7 Inlets. Every inlet to any masonry chimney shall enter the side thereof and shall be of not less than 1/8-inch-thick (3.2 mm) metal or 5/8-inch-thick (16 mm) refractory material. Where there is no other opening below the inlet other than the cleanout, a masonry plug shall be constructed in the chimney not more than 16 inches (406 mm) below the inlet and the cleanout shall be located where it is accessible above the plug. If the plug is located less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the inlet, the inlet may serve as the cleanout.
3102.5 Factory-built Chimneys and Fireplaces.
3102.5.1 General. Factory-built chimneys and factory-built fireplaces shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer's instructions as specified in the Mechanical Code.
3102.5.2 Hearth extensions. Hearth extensions of listed factory-built fireplaces shall conform to the conditions of listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
3102.5.3 Multiple venting in vertical shafts. Factory-built chimneys utilized with listed factory-built fireplaces may be used in a common vertical shaft having the required fire-resistance rating.
3102.6 Metal Chimneys. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed to meet the requirements of the Mechanical Code.
Metal chimneys shall be anchored at each floor and roof with two 1 1/2-inch by 1/8-inch (38 mm by 3.2 mm) metal straps looped around the outside of the chimney installation and nailed with not less than six 8d nails per strap at each joist.
3102.7 Masonry and Concrete Fireplaces and Barbecues.
3102.7.1 General. Masonry fireplaces, barbecues, smoke chambers and fireplace chimneys shall be of masonry or reinforced concrete and shall conform to the requirements of this section.
3102.7.2 Support. Masonry fireplaces shall be supported on foundations designed as specified in Chapters 16, 18 and 21.
When an approved design is not provided, foundations for masonry and concrete fireplaces shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) thick, extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) outside the fireplace wall and project below the natural ground surface in accordance with the depth of foundations set forth in Table 18-I-D.
3102.7.3 Fireplace walls. Masonry walls of fireplaces shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness. Walls of fireboxes shall not be less than 10 inches (254 mm) in thickness, except that where a lining of firebrick is used, such walls shall not be less than a total of 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness. The firebox shall not be less than 20 inches (508 mm) in depth. Joints in firebrick shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6 mm).
EXCEPTION: For Rumford fireplaces, the depth may be reduced to 12 inches (305 mm) when:
1. The depth is at least one third the width of the fireplace opening.
2. The throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel and is at least 1/20 of the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.
3102.7.4 Hoods. Metal hoods used as part of a fireplace or barbecue shall not be less than 0.036 inch (0.92 mm) (No. 19 carbon sheet steel gage) copper, galvanized steel or other equivalent corrosion-resistant ferrous metal with all seams and connections of smokeproof unsoldered constructions. The hoods shall be sloped at an angle of 45 degrees or less from the vertical and shall extend horizontally at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the limits of the firebox. Metal hoods shall be kept a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) from combustible materials unless approved for reduced clearances.
3102.7.5 Metal heat circulators. Approved metal heat circulators may be installed in fireplaces.
3102.7.6 Smoke chamber. Front and side walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness. Smoke chamber back walls shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness.
3102.7.7 Chimneys. Chimneys for fireplaces shall be constructed as specified in Sections 3102.3, 3102.4 and 3102.5 for residential-type appliances.
3102.7.8 Clearance to combustible material. Combustible materials shall not be placed within 2 inches (51 mm) of fireplace, smoke chamber or chimney walls. Combustible material shall not be placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of the fireplace opening. No such combustible material within 12 inches (305 mm) of the fireplace opening shall project more than 1/8 inch (3 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) clearance from such opening.
No part of metal hoods used as part of a fireplace or barbecue shall be less than 18 inches (457 mm) from combustible material. This clearance may be reduced to the minimum requirements specified in the Mechanical Code.
3102.7.9 Areas of flues, throats and dampers. The net cross-sectional area of the flue and of the throat between the firebox and the smoke chamber of a fireplace shall not be less than as set forth in Table 31-A. Metal dampers equivalent to not less than 0.097 inch (2.46 mm) (No. 12 carbon sheet metal gage) steel shall be installed. When fully opened, damper openings shall not be less than 90 percent of the required flue area.
3102.7.10 Lintel. Masonry over the fireplace opening shall be supported by a noncombustible lintel.
3102.7.11 Hearth. Masonry fireplaces shall be provided with a brick, concrete, stone or other approved noncombustible hearth slab. This slab shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) thick and shall be supported by noncombustible materials or reinforced to carry its own weight and all imposed loads. Combustible forms and centering shall be removed.
3102.7.12 Hearth extensions. Hearths shall extend at least 16 inches (406 mm) from the front of, and at least 8 inches (203 mm) beyond each side of, the fireplace opening. Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet (0.56 ) or larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 mm) in front of, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond each side of, the fireplace opening.
Except for fireplaces which open to the exterior of the building, the hearth slab shall be readily distinguishable from the surrounding or adjacent floor.
3102.7.13 Fire blocking.
Fire blocking between chimneys and combustible
construction shall meet the requirements specified in Section
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